Wow & flutter explained

Audio-Technica stroboscopic disc and strobe light (turntablelab.com)
From the instruction manual to Leader LFM-39A wow and flutter meter

Wow & flutter defined

From Tuning Fork magazine, by Pioneer Electronics (No4, 1980)
From Tuning Fork magazine, by Pioneer Electronics (No4, 1980)
From Tuning Fork magazine, by Pioneer Electronics (No4, 1980)

Test frequency

Weighting curves

From the instruction manual to A248 wow and flutter meter, Amalgamated Wireless Ltd.

Dynamics of the meters

Adapted from Tuning Fork magazine, by Pioneer Electronics (No4, 1980)
Quasi-peak: more weight is given to longer impulses
From Electromagnetic Compliance: a view from the field by Vladimir Kraz
Description of the major wow & flutter evaluation methods (Rohde&Schwartz, 1997)
Adapted from Tuning Fork magazine, by Pioneer Electronics (1980)
  • Peak value: maximum absolute value in a half cycle.
  • Peak to peak value: sum of absolute values of the opposite peaks; for a pure sine wave peak to peak value = 2 × peak value.
  • Quasi peak (QP) value or weighted peak value: the pulses are weighed depending upon their duration within a relatively short measuring cycle.
  • 2-σ peak value: the maximum value that is exceeded no more than 5% of the time within a longer measuring cycle.
  • Effective value or root mean squared (RMS) value: for a pure sine wave it comes down to 0.707 × peak value; uses long measuring cycle.
  • Average value or mean value: equals to 0.637 × peak value for a pure sine wave.

Analog meters

Leader LFM-39A wow & flutter meter (www.hifiengine.com)
  • “W&F” (Wow and flutter) — use this switch when measuring overall Wow & Flutter components contained in the measured signal.
  • “WTD” (Weighted) — use this switch when making measurements of weighed characteristics in accordance with JIS, CCIR and DIN specifications.
  • “WOW” — use this switch when measuring WOW component up to 6 Hz.
  • “FLUTTER” — use this switch when measuring FLUTTER component over 6 Hz.
Kenwood FL-140 wow-flutter meter
Kikusui 6701 wow & flutter meter

Measuring and comparing values from different methods

From the instruction manual to wow & flutter meter Model 1035, Dynascan corporation.
Measurements by Artur Kwiatkowski
Measurements by Artur Kwiatkowski
Measurements by Artur Kwiatkowski
From Philips PM6307 wow & flutter meter instruction manual
Soviet state standard GOST 24863–87
  • Highest class (a.k.a. “hi-end”): ±0.08%
  • First class (a.k.a. “hi-fi”): ±0.12%
  • Second class (“hi-fi” and portables): ±0.2%
  • Third class (usually portables): ±0.35%
  • Fourth class (personal stereo and dictation machines): ±0.4%
Soviet state standard GOST 24863–87
Mayak-010 cassette deck
ABEX 3 kHz test tape
WFGUI by Alex Freed
Wow & flutter chart by AudioCraft2013
Wow & flutter specifications of several cassette decks

What is your magic number

From 1954 Ampex tape recording catalog

Math: average value

As shown on the electronics-tutorials.ws
As shown on the electronics-tutorials.ws

Math: root mean square value

As shown on the electronics-tutorials.ws

Math: 2-σ method

From Wow and Flutter Measurement using Multi-Instrument by Virtins Technology

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